Islami F, Stoklosa M, Drope J, Jemal A. Global and regional patterns of tobacco smoking and tobacco control policies. Eur Urol Focus. 2015;1(1):3–16.
Asma S, Song Y, Cohen J, Eriksen M, Pechacek T, Cohen N, et al. CDC grand rounds: global tobacco control. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014;63(13):277.
World Health Organization. WHO updated fact sheet on Tobacco. 2021. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco.
WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic. The MPOWER package. 2008. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43818.
Rafique I, Nadeem Saqib M, Bashir F, Naz S, Naz S. Comparison of tobacco consumption among adults in SAARC countries (Pakistan, India and Bangladesh). J Pak Med Assoc. 2018;68(5):S2–6.
Veeranki SP, Mamudu HM, Zheng S, John RM, Cao Y, Kioko D, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure among never-smoking youth in 168 countries. J Adolesc Health. 2015;56(2):167–73.
Wang R, Jiang Y, Yao C, Zhu M, Zhao Q, Huang L, et al. Prevalence of tobacco related chronic diseases and its role in smoking cessation among smokers in a rural area of Shanghai, China: a cross sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):1–10.
Martins RS, Junaid MU, Khan MS, Aziz N, Fazal ZZ, Umoodi M, et al. Factors motivating smoking cessation: a cross-sectional study in a lower-middle-income country. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):1–11.
World Health Organization. WHO framework convention on tobacco control. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2003. ISBN 978 92 4 159101 0.
World Health Organization. The WHO framework convention on tobacco control: 10 years of implementation in the African region: World Health Organization; 2015. ISBN: 978 9290232773. WHO Regional Office for Africa
Chung-Hall J, Craig L, Gravely S, Sansone N, Fong GT. Impact of the WHO FCTC over the first decade: a global evidence review prepared for the impact assessment expert group. Tob Control. 2019;28(Suppl 2):s119–s28.
Gravely S, Giovino GA, Craig L, Commar A, D’Espaignet ET, Schotte K, et al. Implementation of key demand-reduction measures of the WHO framework convention on tobacco control and change in smoking prevalence in 126 countries: an association study. Lancet Public Health. 2017;2(4):e166–e74.
Bilano V, Gilmour S, Moffiet T, d’Espaignet ET, Stevens GA, Commar A, et al. Global trends and projections for tobacco use, 1990–2025: an analysis of smoking indicators from the WHO Comprehensive information Systems for Tobacco Control. Lancet. 2015;385(9972):966–76.
Jamal A, Phillips E, Gentzke AS, Homa DM, Babb SD, King BA, et al. Current cigarette smoking among adults—United States, 2016. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2018;67(2):53.
Grills NJ, Singh R, Singh R, Martin BC. Tobacco usage in Uttarakhand: a dangerous combination of high prevalence, widespread ignorance, and resistance to quitting. BioMed Res Int. 2015;2015(Article ID 132120):10. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/132120.
Gadhave SA, Nagarkar A. Tobacco control interventions during last decade in India: a narrative review. Natl J Community Med. 2017;8(12):743–51.
McKay AJ, Patel RK, Majeed A. Strategies for tobacco control in India: a systematic review. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0122610.
Heckman CJ, Egleston BL, Hofmann MT. Efficacy of motivational interviewing for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Tob Control. 2010;19(5):410–6.
Lemmens V, Oenema A, Knut IK, Brug J. Effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions among adults: a systematic review of reviews. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2008;17(6):535–44.
Riemsma RP, Pattenden J, Bridle C, Sowden AJ, Mather L, Watt IS, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness of stage based interventions to promote smoking cessation. BMJ. 2003;326(7400):1175–7.
Barroso-Hurtado M, Suárez-Castro D, Martínez-Vispo C, Becoña E, López-Durán A. Smoking cessation apps: a systematic review of format, outcomes, and features. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(21):11664.
Shahab L, McEwen A. Online support for smoking cessation: a systematic review of the literature. Addiction. 2009;104(11):1792–804.
Bottorff JL, Haines-Saah R, Kelly MT, Oliffe JL, Torchalla I, Poole N, et al. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review. Int J Equity Health. 2014;13(1):1–15.
Dono J, Miller C, Ettridge K, Wilson C. The role of social norms in the relationship between anti-smoking advertising campaigns and smoking cessation: a scoping review. Health Educ Res. 2020;35(3):179–94.
Puleo GE, Borger T, Bowling WR, Burris JL. The state of the science on Cancer diagnosis as a “teachable moment” for smoking cessation: a scoping review. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021;24(2):160–8.
Iqbal S, Barolia R, Ladak L, Petrucka P. Smoking cessation interventions in south Asian countries: protocol for scoping review. BMJ Open. 2021;11(2):e038818.
Peters MD, Marnie C, Tricco AC, Pollock D, Munn Z, Alexander L, et al. Updated methodological guidance for the conduct of scoping reviews. JBI Evid Synth. 2020;18(10):2119–26.
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005;8(1):19–32.
WHO-FCTC. RTI International, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka United Nations Development Programme. The case for investing in WHO FCTC implementation in Sri Lanka. 2019. Available from: https://www.undp.org/publications/investment-case-tobacco-control-sri-lanka.
Tobacco Control Laws. Lagislation by country: Bangladesh; 2021. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/Bangladesh/summary.
Bhaumik SS, Placek C, Kochumoni R, Lekha T, Prabhakaran D, Hitsman B, et al. Tobacco cessation among acute coronary syndrome patients in Kerala, India: patient and provider perspectives. Qual Health Res. 2019;29(8):1145–60.
Razzaq S, Kazmi T, Athar U, editors. Prevalence of tobacco use and its determinants among adults aged 18 years and above in urban slum of Lahore, Pakistan: WHO STEPS survey. ISEE Conference Abstracts. 2020.
Suhaj A, Manu MK, Unnikrishnan M, Vijayanarayana K, Mallikarjuna RC. Effectiveness of clinical pharmacist intervention on health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder patients–a randomized controlled study. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2016;41(1):78–83.
Institute of Policy Studies of Sri Lanka. Smoking cessation Policies in Sri Lanka. 2020. Available from: https://www.ips.lk/wp-content/uploads/2020/02/Smoking-Cessation_final.pdf.
Anil OM, Yadav RS, Shrestha N, Koirala S, Shrestha S, Nikhil OM, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in apparently healthy urban adult population of Kathmandu. J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2019;16(41):438–45.
Foundation for a Smoke Free World. State of smoking in India. 2019. Available from: https://www.smokefreeworld.org/health-science-technology/health-science-technology-agenda/data-analytics/global-state-of-smoking-landscape/state-smoking-india/.
World Health Organization. Tobacco free initiative: Pakistan; 2021. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/pak/programmes/tobacco-free-initiative.html.
Elsey H, Dogar O, Ahluwalia J, Siddiqi K. Predictors of cessation in smokers suspected of TB: secondary analysis of data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015;155:128–33.
Cell TC. Ministry of National Health Services, Regulations and Coordinations, Pakistan. 2017. Available from: http://www.tcc.gov.pk/index.php.
Agarwal A, Jindal D, Ajay VS, Kondal D, Mandal S, Ghosh S, et al. Association between socioeconomic position and cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural North India: the Solan surveillance study. PLoS One. 2019;14(7):e0217834.
Tobacco Control Laws. Lagislation by country: Pakistan; 2020. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/pakistan/summary.
Tobacco Control Laws. Lagislation by country: Bhutan. 2020. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/Bhutan/summary.
Tobacco Control Laws. Lagislation by country: Afghanistan. 2019. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/Afghanistan/summary.
The Union. Tobacco control in India: the tobacco epidemic. 2020.
Raspanti GA. Lung cancer in Nepal: the role of traditional tobacco products and combustion related household air pollution; 2016.
Siddiqi K, Siddiqui F, Khan A, Ansaari S, Kanaan M, Khokhar M, et al. The impact of COVID-19 on smoking patterns in Pakistan: findings from a longitudinal survey of smokers. Nicotine Tob Res. 2021;23(4):765–9.
Irfan M, Haque A, Shahzad H, Samani Z, Awan S, Khan J. Reasons for failure to quit: a cross-sectional survey of tobacco use in major cities in Pakistan. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016;20(5):673–8.
Nichter M, Padmajam S, Nichter M, Sairu P, Aswathy S, Mini G, et al. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):1–9.
Sah R, Pradhan B, Subedi L, Karki P, Jha N. Epidemiological study of tobacco smoking behaviour amongst residents of the hill region of Nepal. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2016;14(55):215–20.
Navya N, Jeyashree K, Madhukeshwar AK, Anand T, Nirgude AS, Nayarmoole BM, et al. Are they there yet? Linkage of patients with tuberculosis to services for tobacco cessation and alcohol abuse–a mixed methods study from Karnataka, India. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19(1):1–12.
Elsey H, Khanal S, Manandhar S, Sah D, Baral SC, Siddiqi K, et al. Understanding implementation and feasibility of tobacco cessation in routine primary care in Nepal: a mixed methods study. Implement Sci. 2015;11(1):1–12.
The Tobacco Altas: Bangladesh. American Cancer Society, Inc. and Vital Strategies. 2021. Available from: https://tobaccoatlas.org/country/Bangladesh/. Accessed 30 June 2021.
The Union: Pakistan. Tobacco control in Pakistan: the tobacco epidemic. 2020. Available from: https://theunion.org/our-work/tobacco-control/bloomberg-initiative-to-reduce-tobacco-use-grants-program/tobacco-control-in-pakistan.
Prasad JB, Dhar M. A descriptive method of combining multiple outcomes of multiple exposures with application to cancer patients. Child Health Mortal. 2019;145. Shyam Institute, India. ISBN: 978-92-82411-15-4.
Dogar O, Barua D, Boeckmann M, Elsey H, Fatima R, Gabe R, et al. The safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine in achieving six-month continuous smoking abstinence in tuberculosis patients—protocol for a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Addiction. 2018;113(9):1716–26.
Karmacharya B, Fitzpatrick A, Koju R, Sotodehnia N, Xu D, Pradhan P, et al. Quit intentions and attempts among smokers in sub-urban Nepal: findings from the Dhulikhel heart study. Kathmandu Univ Med J. 2018;61(1):83–8.
The Tobacco Altas: Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka: American Cancer Society, Inc. and Vital Strategies. 2021. Available from: https://tobaccoatlas.org/country/sri-lanka/. Accessed 30 June 2021.
Ali RAB, Harraqui K, Hannoun Z, Monir M, Samir M, Anssoufouddine M, et al. Nutrition transition, prevalence of double burden of malnutrition and cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population living in the island of Anjouan, Comoros. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35:89.
Tobacco Control Laws. Lagislatoin by country: India. 2020. Available from: https://www.tobaccocontrollaws.org/legislation/country/india/summary.
Kanakia KP, Majella MG, Thekkur P, Ramaswamy G, Nair D, Chinnakali P. High tobacco use among presumptive tuberculosis patients, South India: time to integrate control of two epidemics. Osong Public Health Res Perspect. 2016;7(4):228–32.
National Health Portal: India. mCessation Programme (quit tobacco for life) 2016. Available from: https://www.nhp.gov.in/quit-tobacco.
Kumar S, Pooranagangadevi N, Rajendran M, Mayer K, Flanigan T, Niaura R, et al. Physician’s advice on quitting smoking in HIV and TB patients in South India: a randomised clinical trial. Public Health Action. 2017;7(1):39–45.
Gamlath L, Nandasena S, de Silva P, Morrell S, Linhart C, Lin S, et al. Community intervention for cardiovascular disease risk factors in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2020;20(1):1–17.
Hameed A, Malik D. Barriers to cigarette smoking cessation in Pakistan: evidence from qualitative analysis. J Smok Cessat. 2021;2021(Article ID 9592693):9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9592693.
World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2017: monitoring tobacco use and prevention policies Switzerland. 2017. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255874/9789241512824-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
Shahzad M, Shah A, Chaloupka FJ. Tobacco control Laws of south Asian countries: a quantitative-comparative analysis of compliance with FCTC and their effects on smoking prevalence. Bus Econ Rev. 2020;12(4):97–130.
Warsi S, Elsey H, Boeckmann M, Noor M, Khan A, Barua D, et al. Using behaviour change theory to train health workers on tobacco cessation support for tuberculosis patients: a mixed-methods study in Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. BMC Health Serv Res. 2019;19(1):1–14.
Yang T, Abdullah ASM, Mustafa J, Chen B, Feng X. Factors associated with smoking cessation among Chinese adults in rural China. Am J Health Behav. 2009;33(2):125–34.
Abdullah AS, Driezen P, Quah AC, Nargis N, Fong GT. Predictors of smoking cessation behavior among Bangladeshi adults: findings from ITC Bangladesh survey. Tob Induc Dis. 2015;13(1):1–10.